broccolli

Broccoli

PRIMARY MICRO NUTRIENTS Iron, Phosphorus, Manganese, Vitamin C, A, K, B2, B5, B6, Folate
SECONDARY MICRO NUTRIENTS Calcium, Magnesium, Copper, Selenium, Zinc, Vitamin E, B1, B3,
NUTRITIONAL HIGHLIGHTS and NOTES
  • One of the most nutrient dense foods
  • Broccoli sprouts are more nutrient dense than mature broccoli and 30 to 50 times higher in protective chemicals such as phyto-nutrient sulforaphane
FUNCTIONAL BENEFITS Anti-inflammatory, Anti-cancer, Anti-bacterial, Liver Health (hepaprotective), Eye health
PHYTONUTRIENTS Sulforaphane:

  • Anti-cancer
  • Anti-bacterial – rids body of Helicobacter pylori, causitory of peptic ulcers, gastric cancer, gastritis, esophagitis, acid indigestion

Glucosinolates:

  • Anti-cancer (especially breast and prostate cancer, arresting cancer cell growth and promoting excretion of estrogen linked to breast cancer)
  • Liver health – increasing ability of liver to detoxify

Carotenoid Lutein: anti-cancer and eye protection

PLANT FAMILY Brasilica, Cruciferous. Related to: Arugula, Brussel sprouts, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Collards, Mustard, Kale, Radishes, Rutabaga, Turnips, watercress
DANGERS Goitrogens (Thyoid health)
RDA Broccoli, raw
Nutrient Unit per 100 g
Water g 3700 89.3 2.4%
Energy kcal 2600 34 1.3%
Protein g 90 2.82 3.1%
Total lipid (fat) g 87 0.37 0.4%
Carbohydrate, by difference g 224 6.64 3.0%
Fiber, total dietary g 38 2.6 6.8%
Sugars, total g 1.7
Minerals
Calcium, Ca mg 1000 47 4.7%
Iron, Fe mg 8 0.73 9.1%
Magnesium, Mg mg 420 21 5.0%
Phosphorus, P mg 700 66 9.4%
Potassium, K mg 470 316 67.2%
Sodium, Na mg 33
Zinc, Zn mg 11 0.41 3.7%
Copper, Cu mg 0.9 0.049 5.4%
Manganese, Mn mg 2.3 0.21 9.1%
Selenium, Se µg 55 2.5 4.5%
Vitamins
Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid mg 90 89.2 99.1%
Thiamin mg 1.2 0.071 5.9%
Riboflavin mg 1.3 0.117 9.0%
Niacin mg 16 0.639 4.0%
Pantothenic acid mg 5 0.573 11.5%
Vitamin B-6 mg 1.7 0.175 10.3%
Folate, total µg 400 63 15.8%
Choline, total mg 18.7
Betaine mg 0.1
Vitamin B-12 µg 2.4 0 0.0%
Vitamin A, IU IU 5000 623 12.5%
Vitamin E, total mg 15 0.96 6.4%
Vitamin D IU 600 0 0.0%
Vitamin K (phylloquinone) µg 120 101.6 84.7%

RDA – Recommended Dietary Amount recommendations are based upon calculations for a 40 year old very active man that I have adapted from USDA’s Dietary Intake Guidelines. Using this link you can make your own calculations

Adapted from:

Murray, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Healing Food. New York, N.Y.: Atria Books

USDA food database: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/

Other information sources:

An in depth breakdown of both the nutrients and how to best cook Brocolli provided by World’s Healthiest Foods, an excellent online food and nutrition encyclopedia

Self Nutrition Data: an online nutrient breakdown of foods

radishes

Radish-72

PRIMARY MICRO NUTRIENTS Vitamin C, Molybdenum
SECONDARY MICRO NUTRIENTS Calcium (in leaves), Iron, Copper, Potassium, Vitamin B6, Folate
NUTRITIONAL HIGHLIGHTS and NOTES Low in calories. Cooking destroys vitamin C content
FUNCTIONAL BENEFITS
  • Cruciferous family: cancer protective
  • Helps liver disorders – promotes flow of bile
  • Diuretic; expectorant; treats gastric discomfort; laxative
PHYTONUTRIENTS
PLANT FAMILY Brasilica, Cruciferous. Related to: Arugula, Broccoli, Brussel sprouts, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Collards, Mustard, Kale, Rutabaga, Turnips, Watercress
DANGERS Increased bile flow is not good for people with gallbladder disease
RDA Radishes, raw
Nutrient Unit per 100g
Water g 3700 95.27 2.6%
Energy kcal 2600 16 0.6%
Protein g 90 0.68 0.8%
Total lipid (fat) g 87 0.1 0.1%
Carbohydrate, by difference g 224 3.4 1.5%
Fiber, total dietary g 38 1.6 4.2%
Sugars, total g 1.86
Minerals
Calcium, Ca mg 1000 25 2.5%
Iron, Fe mg 8 0.34 4.3%
Magnesium, Mg mg 420 10 2.4%
Phosphorus, P mg 700 20 2.9%
Potassium, K mg 470 233 49.6%
Sodium, Na mg 39
Zinc, Zn mg 11 0.28 2.5%
Copper, Cu mg 0.9 0.05 5.6%
Manganese, Mn mg 2.3 0.069 3.0%
Selenium, Se µg 55 0.6 1.1%
Vitamins
Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid mg 90 14.8 16.4%
Thiamin mg 1.2 0.012 1.0%
Riboflavin mg 1.3 0.039 3.0%
Niacin mg 16 0.254 1.6%
Pantothenic acid mg 5 0.165 3.3%
Vitamin B-6 mg 1.7 0.071 4.2%
Folate, total µg 400 25 6.3%
Choline, total mg 6.5
Betaine mg 0.1
Vitamin B-12 µg 2.4 0 0.0%
Vitamin A, IU IU 5000 7 0.1%
Vitamin E, total mg 15 0 0.0%
Vitamin D IU 600 0 0.0%
Vitamin K (phylloquinone) µg 120 1.3 1.1%

RDA – Recommended Dietary Amount recommendations are based upon calculations for a 40 year old very active man that I have adapted from USDA’s Dietary Intake Guidelines. Using this link you can make your own calculations

Adapted from:

Murray, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Healing Food. New York, N.Y.: Atria Books

USDA food database: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/

Other information sources:

World’s Healthiest Foods – an excellent online food and nutrition encyclopedia

Self Nutrition Data: an online nutrient breakdown of foods

alcohol and gluten

beer_champagneBeer (or wine) and Pizza make a classic combination – talk about umami! However that feel good effect may have more to it than the taste and the buzz of alcohol. It may in fact be a sign that opiates are being released into the brain. But how does this occur? And how can a gluten allergy be involved in this?

In my reboot! post mentioned how I was diagnosed with a Gluten allergy. At the time, I was shocked! After all, I did the test to rule out the possibility of a gluten allergy as a cause for my health problems! As such I faced having to give up my hobbies of beer brewing and bread making with gluten grains, so I looked into what could have triggered the allergy. My answer came when I looked at alcohol and below I delve into what I found out.

Allergies and Barrier Integrity

Allergies start when an unusual particle (such as a food molecule) crosses a barrier within the body. These barriers serve to keep out those particles and exist in the Gastro Intestinal (GI) Tract as well as the Brain, and they are formed by molecules that are tightly woven together and allow only particles of a certain size to cross them. Whether the barrier itself has integrity or is in a weakened state making it “leak” is a major health concern. In my studies on Allergies and Autoimmune and Digestive Health I have posted the factors that lead to leaky barriers. Of these factors, stress and alcohol are quite possibly the most important.

Stress in itself draws blood away from the digestive tract, slowing down the breaking down of food and the motility of it through the body. Just think of when someone said something that made you anxious or distressed whilst you ate – what happened inside your gut? Did you feel a tightening, a constriction in the gut and a loss of appetite? This leads to larger than normal food particles that linger in the GI tract. Having partially digested food remain in the GI tract is damaging to it, as we shall see below. And a family of food particles that we do not wanting to have lingering around are lectins, in particular wheat lectin.

Lectins

Dietary lectins are present both in wheat and in beans and legumes. Like phytates, they serve as protection for plant seeds, such as grains and legumes. Lectins cause damage as they are sticky proteins that bind to other molecules in the body and in the process stimulate an immune response. And this immune response damages barrier lining and widening the junctions in it. Put another way, lectins cause holes in barriers such as the GI tract and allow unusual particles to cross it. [1]

Lectins are broken down and destroyed through sprouting or fermenting, which makes soaking and sprouting your legumes all important! However all too often these grains and legumes are not sprouted, and the lectins are still present in them. Even heating foods containing lectins, such as in making bread does not destroy the lectins in them. Thus even gluten free bread made with bean flour such as Garbanzo or Chickpea Flour contains lectins that can damage the GI lining. [2] And even fermenting (in the case of sourdough bread) almost always only ferments a small portion of the overall grain flour used in the bread. So be aware that eating any food that contains lectins (such as foods made with wheat or beans), damage may be caused to the GI lining making it more permeable.

Leaky barriers and Opiate Highs

A damaged GI wall and intestinal permeability also results from an overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria in gut caused by stress, poor gut motility or diets low in probiotic foods.With a more permeable intestinal barrier, more molecules normally prevented from crossing this barrier are allowed to cross, such as partially digested protein molecules (or peptides). These molecules can then prompt an immune reaction to their appearance leading to an inflammatory response. This inflammatory response can then lead to increased intestinal permeability in turn causing an inflammatory spiral (ie increased inflammation). This sets the stage for the immune system to form antibodies so that it can react more effectively in the future. And in the case of foods with gluten, an allergy or sensitivity to gluten is the result.

Gluten proteins may also be digested improperly and metabolized by pepsin and hydrochloric acid in the stomach into gluteomorphin peptides.  This is the case when people have low stomach acidity which leads to low production of pancreatic enzymes (which itself may be caused by stress). In turn this leads to impaired intestinal wall enterocyte and enzyme function causing problems with digesting protein in food. Most importantly Gluteomorphin peptide breakdown is inhibited[3]

When intestinal enzymes do not break down these peptides, they cross the GI barrier intact. Gluteomorphins can also cross Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) where they bind to opiate receptors in the brain. And opiate receptor binding lead to euphoria, addiction and cravings for more (and appetite stimulation)[3].  This may explain the craving for and happy buzz you get from pizza – an opiate high from Gluteomorphins! However that high and craving could be a sign of both intestinal permeability and a gluten allergy.

Leaky Barriers and Brain Health

Opiate receptor binding of gluteomorphin in the brain also has direct links to schizophrenia, autism and ADHD. In addition, partially digested  peptides crossing the GI barrier inhibit enzymes which break down used protein metabolites in body, such as hormones and neurotransmitters. This is turn leads to increased circulation of them leading to damage to tissues, organs and the brain. Gluten meanwhile is associated with several specific brain health issues[4][13]

  • Encephalopathy (brain disease) and brain destruction that leads to migraines and stroke like symptoms such as loss of use of arm, legs or speech and vision difficulties as well as dementia and peripheral neuropathy
  • Immune related damage to memory and mind, such as temporal lobes, resulting in seizures and epilepsy
  • Cerebellar ataxia caused by the binding of gluten anti-bodies in the brain to Purkinje receptors and brain cell destruction

This ataxia (impaired muscular co-ordination) you may be familiar with – it happens on those occasions when we drink too much alcohol! However alcohol also poses even more dangers. Drinking alcohol even in moderate amounts has been shown in a study to disrupt the GI lining making it leaky[5]. In addition, alcohol has been shown to disrupt and weaken the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB)[6].

Other factors, including immune mediators and inflammatory compounds can weaken the BBB leading to neural degeneration and diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and epilepsy[7]. And these inflammatory compounds can stem from a leaky gut, which in itself has been shown to contribute to a leaky BBB[8]. In fact, any factor which weakens the GI barrier including stress, the use of pharmaceuticals and exposure to allergy foods and toxins can also weaken the BBB and lead to neurodegeration[9].

A key point involved in this is the additional load of toxins and peptides that are allowed into the body through a leaky gut. These then create metabolic waste as the immune system tries to tackle them. All of this waste then needs to be cleared out by the liver, and the liver shares nutrient resources for its function with the immune and adrenal systems. Thus under increased work load to process this metabolic waste, or if the nutrients it needs are being used due to stress or an immune response, the liver will take longer time to break down this waste leading to damage caused to the body as they keep circulating in it. Thus drinking alcohol will enhance the potential for this damage to the body, for it is also a toxin that the liver deals with.

Alcohol consumption in itself has been shown to have links with the development of Celiac disease[10]. However, whilst it is not clear that alcohol consumption actually causes Celiac disease, what can be assumed is that it plays a mediatory role. This same role has been shown to occur between alcohol consumption and the development of Cerebellar degeneration related to gluten (Gluten ataxia)[11]. The issue here is what triggers the development of antibodies that react both to gluten and to brain tissue. As such alcohol can prime a person for the formation of these antibodies through weakening the GI and BBB as well as through weakening the liver’s ability to process metabolic waste.

A key point to note is that brain degeneration related to Gluten is not always associated with GI related symptoms or discomfort, as studies have shown[12] [13] [14]. These studies postulate that the immune system response to gluten is different between people. Thus an allergic response to gluten could manifest in GI problems with some people and neurological (Brain) related problems with other people. Meanwhile these studies show that avoidance of gluten lowered the onset of GI and neurological problems. A gluten free diet moreover may also prevent these problems occurring at all.

Takeaway

Personally I never had GI problems from eating wheat or gluten grains. However my tests showed I had gluten antibodies in my brain, antibodies linked directly to Gluten Ataxia and Cerebellar degeneration. From looking into this, I see that alcohol and stress played a key role in weakening my BBB and triggering the formation of those antibodies. And I certainly don’t want to lose my muscular co-ordination and ability to exercise due to Gluten Ataxia. Nor do I want the same to happen to you!

So I offer you the following advice:

  • Ensure you are able to relax and be absorbed in good vibrational feelings whilst you eat and that you are not stressed (or distressed / made anxious) by anything. A simple habit or ritual to help with this is to say a prayer of gratitude or grace before eating and to eat mindfully and gratefully (and encourage others who eat with you to join you in this ritual!)
  • Chew thoroughly as this also both stimulates and is a key part of the whole digestion process
  • Be aware that all foods that contain grain and legumes run the risk of causing a leaky gut. This includes all breads, pastas as well as gluten free products made with bean flour. In other words, unless the grains and legumes used in the food are thoroughly soaked, sprouted or fermented to break down the lectins in them, those lectins could be causing a leaky gut
  • A glass of alcohol with food makes the barriers of the brain and gut leaky and a leaky barrier is what triggers an allergic reaction as well as both Gastro Intestinal and Brain damage
  • Love your liver! and start you day with a green smoothie

Resources:[1]

Lectins

An excellent article about Lectins, GI health and the benefits of sprouting from the Precision Nutrition

An indepth study on Dietary Lectins and immune response from Laura Power, pH D

A great article about the link between Wheat and brain health from Dr Mercola

An study article about the health problems caused by wheat from GreenMedInfo

Adapted from:

[2]

Pierini , C. (no date). Lectins: Their Damaging Role in Intestinal Health, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Weight Loss.

Kharrazian, D. (2013). Why Isn’t My Brain Working? Carlsbad, C.A.: Elephant Press

Perlmutter, D. (2013). Grain Brain. New York, N.Y.: Little, Brown and Company

[3]

Campbell-McBride, N. (2004). Gut and Psychology Syndrome.  Cambridge, U.K., Medinform Publishing
[4]

Davis, William (2011). Wheat Belly: Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back To Health. New York, NY: Rodale

Alcohol and Weakening of the Blood Brain Barrier

[5]

Elamin E, Jonkers D, Juuti-Uusitalo K, van IJzendoorn S, Troost F, et al. (2012) Effects of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde on Tight Junction Integrity: In Vitro Study in a Three Dimensional Intestinal Epithelial Cell Culture Model. PLoS ONE 7(4): e35008. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035008
[6]

Haorah, J., Heilman, D., Knipe, B., Chrastil, J., Leibhart, J., Ghorpade, A., Miller, D. W. and Persidsky, Y. (2005), Ethanol-Induced Activation of Myosin Light Chain Kinase Leads to Dysfunction of Tight Junctions and Blood-Brain Barrier Compromise. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 29: 999–1009. doi: 10.1097/01.ALC.0000166944.79914.0A

Blood Brain Barrier
[7]

Stamatovic, S. M., Keep, R. F., & Andjelkovic, A. V. (2008). Brain Endothelial Cell-Cell Junctions: How to “Open” the Blood Brain Barrier. Current Neuropharmacology6(3), 179–192. doi:10.2174/157015908785777210
[8]

Aristo Vojdani and Jama Lambert, “The Role of Th17 in Neuroimmune Disorders: Target for CAM Therapy. Part II,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 984965, 7 pages, 2011. doi:10.1093/ecam/nep063
[9]

Forsgren, S. (2008). NeuroImmunology: From Leaky Gut to Leaky Brain. Public Health Alert: 3(12).

Alcohol and Gluten sensitivity
[10]

Koivisto, H., Hietala, J., Anttila, P., & Niemelä, O. (2008). Co-occurrence of IgA antibodies against ethanol metabolites and tissue transglutaminase in alcohol consumers: correlation with proinflammatory cytokines and markers of fibrogenesis. Digestive diseases and sciences53(2), 500-505.
[11]

Currie, S., Hoggard, N., Clark, M. J. R., Sanders, D. S., Wilkinson, I. D., Griffiths, P. D., & Hadjivassiliou, M. (2013). Alcohol Induces Sensitization to Gluten in Genetically Susceptible Individuals: A Case Control Study. PLoS ONE8(10), e77638. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077638

Gluten Ataxia

Hadjivassiliou, M., Mäki, M., Sanders, D. S., Williamson, C. A., Grünewald, R. A., Woodroofe, N. M., & Korponay-Szabó, I. R. (2006). Autoantibody targeting of brain and intestinal transglutaminase in gluten ataxia. Neurology66(3), 373-377. This study may be found by copying and pasting the following link into your browser: http://drperlmutter.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/2-Autoantibodies-TTG-ataxia.pdf
[12]

Hadjivassiliou, M., Aeschlimann, P., Strigun, A., Sanders, D. S., Woodroofe, N., & Aeschlimann, D. (2008). Autoantibodies in gluten ataxia recognize a novel neuronal transglutaminase. Annals of neurology64(3), 332-343.

[13]

Hadjivassiliou, M., Sanders, D. S., Grünewald, R. A., Woodroofe, N., Boscolo, S., & Aeschlimann, D. (2010). Gluten sensitivity: from gut to brain. The Lancet Neurology9(3), 318-330. This study may be found by copying and pasting the following link into your browser:http://drperlmutter.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Celiac-disease-from-gut-to-brain.pdf
[14]

Hadjivassiliou, M., Aeschlimann, P., Sanders, D. S., Mäki, M., Kaukinen, K., Grünewald, R. A., … & Aeschlimann, D. P. (2013). Transglutaminase 6 antibodies in the diagnosis of gluten ataxia. Neurology80(19), 1740-1745

green smoothie recipe!

wpid-20150309_1724592.jpg.jpegThis recipe packs in a punch for your liver health and brain function and is a great wake-up juice for the morning. So get blending and in the process, give your liver a loving hug!

  • Omega 3 fatty acids in Chia seeds and Walnuts are associated with improved mental function as they are essential components of brain and nerve cells and the fat in the seeds and nuts is also needed for absorption of nutrients such as Beta-carotene in the leaves
  • Brewer’s yeast is packed with B vitamins that are needed not just for energy but for forming important neurotransmitters like Acetylcholine and Norepinephrine in the body
  • Protein in the whey powder, vital not just for repairing and maintaining muscles, but also for immune health. Its also needed for forming neurotransmitters and ensuring brain health!
  • Anti-oxidant protection from the vitamin C, flavonoids and carotenes in the fruit and green leaves not only help protect the liver and replenish needed nutrients for detoxification, the anti-oxidants are needed for protecting the brain too. Note that the more bitter tasting the green leaf is, the better it is for the liver – which makes Dandelion leaves our liver loving leaf!
  • Chlorophyll in the leaves soothe and help heal the Gastro Intestinal tract and nutrients in the Cinnamon, Dill seeds and Ginger all give the digestion a huggy hand in absorbing all the nutritional goodies from the greens!
  • Fiber in the Chia seeds, the leaves and the fruit helps both your digestion, blood sugar stability and your detoxification – and it makes you feel satisfyingly full!
  • Ginkgo Biloba provides a boost to brain metabolism and energy synthesis, as well as providing anti-oxidant protection and helping to promote the flow of blood in the brain
  • Milk Thistle seed, Dill seed and Turmeric helps the liver with detoxification and Glutathione boosting Walnuts round off what the liver needs to make a great day!
  • Bromelain in the Pineapple and Pepperine in the Black pepper helps with Turmeric absorption

Ingredients:

  • 1/2 cup of fresh Pineapple chunks
  • 1 large handful of green leaves (such as Dandelion, Kale, Swiss Chard, Spinach)
  • 1 Banana
  • 5 walnuts
  • 2 scoops of whey protein powder
  • 1 garlic clove, crushed or chopped
  • 1.5 tsp Chia seed
  • 1/4 tsp Turmeric powder
  • 1/4  tsp ground Cinnamon
  • 1/2 tsp Dill seeds
  • 1 cm chunk of fresh Ginger
  • 1 tsp Brewer’s / Nutritional yeast
  • 1 Milk Thistle seed capsule
  • 1 Gingko Biloba capsule
  • Fresh ground black pepper

Method:

  • Pop everything in a blender with and blend until everything is totally broken down adding a little water to help get the blending going
  • When you drink, drink slowly and try to chew – to make sure you get your saliva to start that all important work of breaking down the food for your benefit.

milk thistle seed

Milk-Thistle

Part used Seed extract
Use
  • Most effective as gel-cap extract  in combination with soy lecithin: phosphatylcholine enhances absorption of active component silymarin in GI tract and delivers to tissues (combination called silipide and labelled phytosome)
  • Less effective as tea or as seed
Benefits
  • Hepaprotective and treats liver disorders
  • Regulates fat digestion, stabilizes blood sugar, reduces intestinal inflammation, promotes excretion of some hormones
  • Prevents altitude sickness

Adapted from:

Balch, P.A. (2002). Prescription for herbal healing. New York, NY: Avery books

sulphur

Functions
  • Essential component of amino acids methionine, cysteine, cystine and taurine providing place for these aminos to bond and form solidifying protein structure used in joints, hair, nails, skin
    • Cysteine beneficial for liver health
    • Taurine is bile acid component (digestive function)
    • Methionine and cysteine used in metabolizing homocysteine (anti-heart disease)
  • Insulin and glutathione contain sulphur
Source and function notes
  • Arthritis and liver disorders may be improved with increased intake of sulfur
  • Eggs, legumes and whole grains high in sulfur
Vegetable sources Garlic, onions, Brussel sprouts, cabbage

Adapted from:

Murray, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Healing Food. New York, N.Y.: Atria Books

Bland, J., Costarella, L., Levin, B., Liska, D., Lukaczer, D., Schlitz, B., Schmidt, M., Lerman, R., Quinn, S., Jones, D. (2004). Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach, Second Edition. Gig Harbor, WA: The Institute for Functional Medicine.

vitamin B2 – riboflavin

Functions
  • Brain and nerve function: control use of glucose by neurons, assist in making fatty acids needed to preserve integrity of nerve cell membranes, works with B1 and B5 to make acetylcholine
  • Energy metabolism – needed to support thyroid, adrenals and for exercise
  • Liver enzyme (P450) support in xenobiotic metabolism
  • Lipid metabolism
  • Regenerates glutathione to provide anti-oxidant protection
Sources notes
  • Best sources yeast, wheat germ, organ meats, almonds, mushrooms
  • Destroyed by light
Vegetable Sources Mushrooms; hot peppers; collards; kale; parsley; broccoli; beet and mustard greens
Fruit Sources prunes
Nut and seed sources almonds; cashews; pine nuts; sunflower seeds
Absorption and function notes
  • Absorption inhibited by alcohol, antacids and psylium gum slow absorption
  • Bile acids enhance absorption
  • Bioavailability decresed by copper, zinc, caffeine, theophylline, B3, C tryptophan
Deficiency factors
  • Decreased energy especially in cells that replicate quickly (e.g. skin and mucus membranes) – cracking of lips and corners of mouth, inflamed tongue and other mucuous membrane disorders
  • Blurring and itching of eyes, lips, mouth and tongue
  • Visual disturbances (e.g. sensitivity to light, loss of acuity) and cataract formation
Toxicity

Adapted from:

Murray, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Healing Food. New York, N.Y.: Atria Books

Bland, J., Costarella, L., Levin, B., Liska, D., Lukaczer, D., Schlitz, B., Schmidt, M., Lerman, R., Quinn, S., Jones, D. (2004). Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach, Second Edition. Gig Harbor, WA: The Institute for Functional Medicine.

choline

Functions
  • Brain and nerve function: crucial ingredient in cell membranes, production of neurotransmitter acetylcholine (with B1, B5, B6, C, Calcium and Zinc)
  • Fat metabolism and fat transport from the liver
  • Involved in homocysteine metabolism
Sources notes
  • Best sources egg yolk, beef, orange and cauliflower
  • Can be manufactured in body
Vegetable Sources Cauliflower; Potato; Lettuce; Tomato
Fruit Sources orange; grape juice; apple; banana
Nut and seed sources
Absorption and function notes
Deficiency factors Liver damage from fats trapped in liver
Toxicity

Adapted from:

Murray, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Healing Food. New York, N.Y.: Atria Books

Bland, J., Costarella, L., Levin, B., Liska, D., Lukaczer, D., Schlitz, B., Schmidt, M., Lerman, R., Quinn, S., Jones, D. (2004). Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach, Second Edition. Gig Harbor, WA: The Institute for Functional Medicine.

vitamin D

Functions
  • Healthy immune function
  • Regulates calcium and phosphorus absorption
  • Regulates of calcium balance and uptake from bones (as active form Calcitrol)
  • Possibly helps prevent cancer, diabetes, heart disease, osteoporosis, and persistent, nonspecific musculoskeletal pain
Sources notes Best sources fish; Sun vitamin
Vegetable Sources Mushrooms
Fruit Sources
Nut and seed sources
Absorption and function notes Fat soluble – fat enhances absorption
Deficiency factors
  • Rickets (children), Osteomalacia (adults); Liver and kidney disorders; Osteoporosis
  • Conversion both from sunlight and diet to potent form (1,25-[OH]2D3) in liver – liver health essential
  • Estrogen and magnesium deficiencies play a role  in conversion as does boron
Toxicity
  • Irritability, joint pain
  • Greatest potential to be toxic of fat soluble vitamins

Adapted from:

Murray, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Healing Food. New York, N.Y.: Atria Books

Bland, J., Costarella, L., Levin, B., Liska, D., Lukaczer, D., Schlitz, B., Schmidt, M., Lerman, R., Quinn, S., Jones, D. (2004). Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach, Second Edition. Gig Harbor, WA: The Institute for Functional Medicine.

dandelion leaves

dandelion

PRIMARY MICRO NUTRIENTS
  • Vitamins C, B2, B6, A, E, K and Choline
  • Minerals Calcium, Copper, Manganese, Iron
SECONDARY MICRO NUTRIENTS  Vitamin B3, Folate
NUTRITIONAL HIGHLIGHTS and NOTES
  • Toning effect on the body
  • Liver health – bitter leaves (such as dandelion) are optimal for aiding liver function
  • High pectin fiber content
FUNCTIONAL BENEFITS
  • Liver function and detoxification
  • Promotes weight loss largely due to diuretic effect
  • Improves blood sugar control
PHYTONUTRIENTS Guaianolide Taraxacin – intestinal anti-septic, germicidal, expectorant
PLANT FAMILY Compositae, Daisy / Sunflower. Related to: Artichoke, Jerusalem Artichoke (Sunchoke), Lettuce
DANGERS Daisy family: allergies
RDA Dandelion % RDA
Nutrient Unit per 100g
Water g 3700 85.6 2.3%
Energy kcal 2600 45 1.7%
Protein g 90 2.7 3.0%
Total lipid (fat) g 87 0.7 0.8%
Carbohydrate, by difference g 224 9.2 4.1%
Fiber, total dietary g 38 3.5 9.2%
Sugars, total g 0.71
Minerals
Calcium, Ca mg 1000 187 18.7%
Iron, Fe mg 8 3.1 38.8%
Magnesium, Mg mg 420 36 8.6%
Phosphorus, P mg 700 66 9.4%
Potassium, K mg 470 397 84.5%
Sodium, Na mg 76
Zinc, Zn mg 11 0.41 3.7%
Copper, Cu mg 0.9 0.171 19.0%
Manganese, Mn mg 2.3 0.342 14.9%
Selenium, Se µg 55 0.5 0.9%
Vitamins
Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid mg 90 35 38.9%
Thiamin mg 1.2 0.19 15.8%
Riboflavin mg 1.3 0.26 20.0%
Niacin mg 16 0.806 5.0%
Pantothenic acid mg 5 0.084 1.7%
Vitamin B-6 mg 1.7 0.251 14.8%
Folate, total µg 400 27 6.8%
Choline, total mg 35.3
Betaine mg
Vitamin B-12 µg 2.4 0 0.0%
Vitamin A, IU IU 5000 10161 203.2%
Vitamin E, total mg 15 3.44 22.9%
Vitamin D IU 600 0 0.0%
Vitamin K (phylloquinone) µg 120 778.4 648.7%

RDA – Recommended Dietary Amount recommendations are based upon calculations for a 40 year old very active man that I have adapted from USDA’s Dietary Intake Guidelines. Using this link you can make your own calculations

Adapted from:

Murray, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Healing Food. New York, N.Y.: Atria Books

USDA food database: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/

Other information sources:

World’s Healthiest Foods – an excellent online food and nutrition encyclopedia

Self Nutrition Data: an online nutrient breakdown of foods