Kiwi

kiwi-fruit-Health-Benefits

If you’re concerned about regulating blood sugar or having assistance facing stress in your life, turn to kiwis for support. Kiwis are an amazing food for diabetes, hypoglycemia, and hyper­ glycemia. Whether your blood sugar levels are too low or too high, eating this fruit will bring you back to your centre. Kiwis are the ultimate companion offering a high-quality glucose source to feed the neurons in your brain and alleviate your distress. 

With over 40 trace minerals, kiwis are an excellent source of nourishment. Kiwis also possess powerful vitamin C that’s bonded to iso­thiocyanates, anthocyanins and phenolic acid compounds to inhibit viruses. Kiwis are also fantastic to help alleviate digestive disorders and discomfort and symptoms that are often related to low hydrochloric acid levels in the stomach. 

PRIMARY MICRO NUTRIENTSVitamin C, Potassium, Copper
SECONDARY MICRO NUTRIENTSVitamin K, Vitamin E
NUTRITIONAL HIGHLIGHTS

Vitamin C superstar

FUNCTIONAL BENEFITS

asthma

  • the high amount of vitamin C and antioxidants that kiwis contain can help treat people with asthma: there is a beneficial effect on the lung function among those who consumed fresh kiwis regularly according to this study

digestion

  • Kiwis have plenty of fiber, and they also contain a proteolytic enzyme called actinidin that can help break down protein and greatly enhance the digestion of most proteins according to this study

immune health

  • Kiwis are nutrient-dense and full of vitamin C. 1 kiwi  fruit provides about 70% of your daily recommended value. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient when it comes to boosting your immune system to ward off disease. This study found that kiwis may support immune function and reduce the likelihood of developing cold or flu like illnesses

reduce oxidative stress and cancer risk

  • Oxidative stress can result in damage to our DNA and trigger  health problems and in particular cancer. Partially thanks to its antioxidants, there is evidence that regular consumption of kiwi reduces the likelihood of oxidative stress. And since oxidative DNA damage is strongly linked to cancer, regular kiwi consumption could lower your risk of cancer

help manage blood pressure

  • the bioactive substances in three kiwis a day can lower blood pressure more than one apple a day according to this study. Long term, this may also mean a lowered risk for conditions that can be caused by high blood pressure like strokes or heart attacks

reduces blood clotting

  • This study found that eating two to three kiwis a day significantly lowered the risk of blood clotting. They were also found to reduce the amount of fat in the blood
PHYTONUTRIENTS

protects against vision loss

  • Kiwis’ high levels of zeaxanthin and lutein help protect your eyes from macular degeneration (the leading cause of vision loss). This study found that by eating three servings of fruit a day, macular degeneration was decreased by 36 percent.
NOTES

 

ADVICE and DANGERS

Eating kiwi fruit is regarded as safe for most people. The main exception is for those who are allergic. Signs of a kiwi allergy include itchy throat, swollen tongue, trouble swallowing, vomiting, and hives. Your risk for allergy to kiwi increases if you’re also allergic to hazelnuts, avocados, latex, wheat, figs, or poppy seeds.

In rare cases, kiwis could slow blood clotting, increasing bleeding. This could increase the severity of bleeding disorders. If you have a bleeding disorder or are about to have surgery, avoid eating kiwis.

 

Kiwifruit, raw  1 fruit (2″ dia) = 69.0g
NutrientRDAUnit % RDA
Water g57.32 
Energy kcal42 
Protein g0.79 
Total lipid (fat) g0.36 
Carbohydrate, by difference g10.12 
Fiber, total dietary g2.1 
Sugars, total g6.2 
Minerals    
Calcium, Ca1000mg232.30%
Iron, Fe8mg0.212.60%
Magnesium, Mg420mg122.90%
Phosphorus, P700mg233.30%
Potassium, K470mg21545.70%
Sodium, Na mg2 
Zinc, Zn11mg0.10.90%
Copper, Cu0.9mg0.0910.00%
Manganese, Mn2.3mg0.0683.00%
Selenium, Se55µg0.10.20%
Vitamins    
Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid90mg6471.10%
Thiamin1.2mg0.0191.60%
Riboflavin1.3mg0.0171.30%
Niacin16mg0.2351.50%
Pantothenic acid5mg0.1262.50%
Vitamin B-61.7mg0.0432.50%
Folate, total400µg174.30%
Choline, total mg5.4 
Betaine mg0.3 
Vitamin B-122.4µg00.00%
Carotene, beta  36 
Vitamin A, IU5000IU601.20%
Lutein + zeaxanthin  84 
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)  1.01 
Tocopherol, gamma  0.02 
Tocotrienol, gamma  0.07 
Vitamin E (total)15mg1.17.30%
Vitamin D600IU00.00%
Vitamin K (phylloquinone)120µg27.823.20%
Flavan-3-ols g  
(-)-Epicatechin mg0.2 
(-)-Epigallocatechin 3-gallate mg0.1 
Flavanones mg  
Flavones    
Luteolin mg0.5 
Flavonols mg  
Kaempferol mg0.7 
Proanthocyanidin mg  
Proanthocyanidin dimers mg0.4 
Proanthocyanidin trimers mg0.4 
Proanthocyanidin 4-6mers mg0.9 
Proanthocyanidin 7-10mers mg0.1 

RDA – Recommended Dietary Amount recommendations are based upon calculations for a 40 year old very active man that I have adapted from USDA’s Dietary Intake Guidelines. Using this link you can make your own calculations

Adapted from:

Murray, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Healing Food. New York, N.Y.: Atria Books

USDA food database: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/

Healthline

WH Foods reports on the following benefits of Kiwis

Kiwi’s Phytonutrients Protect DNA

In the world of phytonutrient research, kiwifruit has fascinated researchers for its ability to protect DNA in the nucleus of human cells from oxygen-related damage. Researchers are not yet certain which compounds in kiwi give it this protective antioxidant capacity, but they are sure that this healing property is not limited to those nutrients most commonly associated with kiwifruit, including its vitamin C or beta-carotene content. Since kiwi contains a variety of flavonoids and carotenoids that have demonstrated antioxidant activity, these phytonutrients in kiwi may be responsible for this DNA protection.

Kiwifruit Offers Premier Antioxidant Protection

Kiwifruit is an excellent source of vitamin C. This nutrient is the primary water-soluble antioxidant in the body, neutralizing free radicals that can cause damage to cells and lead to problems such as inflammation and cancer. Adequate intake of vitamin C has been shown to be helpful in reducing the severity of conditions like osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma, and for preventing conditions such as colon cancer, atherosclerosis, and diabetic heart disease. And vitamin C is necessary for the healthy function of the immune system and a reduced risk of death from all causes including heart disease, stroke and cancer.

Fiber—Concentrated in Kiwifruit—for Blood Sugar Control Plus Cardiovascular and Colon Health

Kiwifruit as a very good source of dietary fiber. The fiber in kiwifruit has also been shown to reduce high cholesterol levels, which may reduce the risk of heart disease and heart attack. Fiber is also good for binding and removing toxins from the colon, which is helpful for preventing colon cancer. In addition, fiber-rich foods, like kiwifruit, are good for keeping the blood sugar levels of diabetic patients under control.

Kiwifruit’s Potential Protection against Macular Degeneration

Data reported in a study published in the Archives of Opthamology indicates that eating 3 or more servings of fruit per day may lower your risk of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), the primary cause of vision loss in older adults, by 36%, compared to persons who consume less than 1.5 servings of fruit daily.

In this study, which involved over 110,000 women and men, researchers evaluated the effect of study participants’ consumption of fruits; vegetables; the antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E; and carotenoids on the development of early ARMD or neovascular ARMD, a more severe form of the illness associated with vision loss. Food intake information was collected periodically for up to 18 years for women and 12 years for men. While, surprisingly, intakes of vegetables, antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids were not strongly related to incidence of either form of ARM, fruit intake was definitely protective against the severe form of this vision-destroying disease. Three servings of fruit may sound like a lot to eat each day, but kiwifruit can help you reach this goal. Slice kiwi over your morning cereal, lunch time yogurt or green salads. For a more elegant meal, decorate any fish dish or fruit salad with kiwi slices.

Kiwifruit is a Delicious Way to Enjoy Cardiovascular Health

Enjoying just a couple of kiwifruit each day may significantly lower your risk for blood clots and reduce the amount of fats (triglycerides) in your blood, therefore helping to protect cardiovascular health.

Kiwifruit is an excellent source of vitamin C, and polyphenols, and a good source of potassium, all of which may function individually or in concert to protect the blood vessels and heart. In one study, human volunteers who ate 2 to 3 kiwifruit per day for 28 days reduced their platelet aggregation response (potential for blood clot formation) by 18% compared to controls eating no kiwi. In addition, kiwi eaters’ triglycerides (blood fats) dropped by 15% compared to controls.

References

  • Cho, E., Seddon, J., & Rosner, B. (2004). Prospective study of intake of fruits, vegetables, vitamins, and carotenoid risk of age-related maculopathy. Epidemiology, 122(6), 883-892
    jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaophthalmology/fullarticle/416353
  • Collins, B. H., Horska, A., Hotten P. M., Riddoch, C., Collins, A. R. (2001). Kiwi fruit protects against oxidative DNA damage in human cells and in vitro. Nutritional Cancer, 39(1), 148-53
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11588897
  • Duttaroy, A. K., Jorgensen, A. Forastiere, F., Pistelli, R., Sestini, P., & Fortes, C. (2000). Consumption of fresh fruit rich in vitamin C and wheezing symptoms in children. Thorax, 55, 283-288
    thorax.bmj.com/content/55/4/283.full
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  • Fortin, Francois, Editorial Director. The Visual Foods Encyclopedia. Macmillan, New York. 1996.
  • Gil MI, Aguayo E, Kader AA. Quality changes and nutrient retention in fresh-cut versus whole fruits during storage. J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Jun 14;54(12):4284-96. 2006. PMID:16756358.
  • Ikken Y, Morales P, Martinez A, et al. Antimutagenic effect of fruit and vegetable ethanolic extracts against N-nitrosamines evaluated by the Ames test. J Agric Food Chem 1999 Aug;47(8):3257-64. 1999. PMID:13350.
  • Kaur, L., Rutherford, S. M., Moughan, P. J., Drummond, L., & Boland, M. J. (2010, April 28). Actinidin enhances gastric protein digestion as assessed using an in vitro gastric digestion model. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 58(8), 5068-73
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20232890
  • Khaw KT, Bingham S, Welch A, et al. Relation between plasma ascorbic acid and mortality in men and women in EPIC-Norfolk prospective study: a prospective population study. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Lancet. 2001 Mar 3;357(9257):657-63. 2001.
  • Kurl S, Tuomainen TP, Laukkanen JA et al. Plasma vitamin C modifies the association between hypertension and risk of stroke. Stroke 2002 Jun;33(6):1568-73. 2002.
  • Leong, L. P., & Shui, G. (2002, January). An investigation of antioxidant capacity of fruits in Singapore markets. Food Chemistry, 76(1), 69-75
    sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814601002515
  • Maillar C. [The kiwi, rich in vitamins C and E and also in potassium]. Servir 1998 May-1998 Jun 30;46(3):160. 1998. PMID:13380.
  • Sommerburg O, Keunen JE, Bird AC, van Kuijk FJ. Fruits and vegetables that are sources for lutein and zeaxanthin: the macular pigment in human eyes. Br J Ophthalmol 1998 Aug;82(8):907-10. 1998. PMID:13370.
  • Stonehouse, W., Gammon, C. S., Beck, K. L., Conlon, C. A., von Hurst, P. R., & Kruger, R. (2012, November 6). Kiwi: Our daily prescription for health. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 91(6), 442-447
    nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/cjpp-2012-0303#.WEW-VKOZORv
  • Svendsen, M. (2014, December 8). The effect of kiwifruit consumption on blood pressure in subjects with moderately elevated blood pressure: A randomized, controlled study. Blood Pressure, 24(1)
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25483553
  • Wood, Rebecca. The Whole Foods Encyclopedia. New York, NY: Prentice-Hall Press; 1988. 1988. PMID:15220
 

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