weight loss study

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non and conditionally essential amino acids

Alanine
  • Converts glucose to energy
  • Removes toxins / supports liver detoxification
  • Helps regulate nitrogen / glucose balance in body
Asparagine Helps body get rid of ammonia
Aspartic Acid Required for neurotransmitters
Cysteine
  • Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant
  • Methyl donor in many body processes, including detoxification and converting homocysteine to methionine (homocysteine involved in inflammation in the body, thus more cysteine, better regulation of inflammatory conditions)
  • Sulfur donor in phase 2 liver detoxification sulfation process (hydrolysis of heavy metals)
  • Helps synthesize glutathione (important for anti-oxidant defense and liver detoxification)
  • Promotes health of connective tissue, joints, hair, skin, nails
  • Best sources – meat, fish, eggs, dairy products
Glutamic Acid
  • Precursor for Glutamate
  • Principle excitory brain neurotransmitter responsible for cognition, memory, movement, sensation and has interaction with specific neuronal receptors
  • Requires calcium to induce excitory effect
  • High levels of glutamate in brain over stimulates NDMA receptors leading to increased Nitric Oxide production leading to neurological disorders, stroke, dementia, epilepsy, Huntingdon’s, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, Hypoglycemia, trauma
  • Glutamic acid and glutamate act as amino acid precursors in synthesis of neurotransmitter GABA
Glutamine
  • Preferred respiratory furl in GI tract
  • Anti-inflammatory to GI tract
  • Conditionally essential for stress states: injury, sepsis and inflammation
  • Acts as nitrogen shuttle in blood; precursor for urinary ammonia
  • Best sources – eggs, whey protein
Glycine Used for synthesizing creatine
Proline
  • Main amino in collagen and needed in bone, skin and cartilage formation
  • Needed for maintaining joints and tendons and for tissue repair and healing
  • Can be formed from aminos Glutamine or Ornithine
  • Best sources: dairy products and eggs
Ornithine
  • Useful for stimulating growth hormone release
  • Helps build immune system, promote wound healing and support liver regeneration
  • Can be made from amino Arginine
Serine
  • Required for brain and central nervous system
  • Assists phospholipids in the body (in DNA and muscle building)
  • Important component of SAMe cycle (s-adenosylmethionine) critical for processes such as detoxification, gene regulation, hormone production
  • May act as neurotransmitter and modifier of nerve messaging processes, and regulation of cell cycles
  • Best sources:

Meat and dairy, wheat gluten, peanuts, soy

  • May be made in body from Glycine or Threonine (with support of B3, B6, Folic acid)
Tyrosine
  • Tyrosine is made from amino acid phenylalanine and is direct precursor to catecholamines epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenalin), dopamine and thyroid hormones (all stimulants of metabolism and nervous system)
  • Needs folic acid, vit C, copper and S-adenosylmethionine for metabolism, into tyrosine, or into melanin, estrogen, and enkephalines (pain killers)
  • May stimulate growth hormone, be anti-depressant, control anxiety, be mild appetite suppressant, is mild anti-oxidant
  • Useful for smoker, highly stressed people, people exposed to chemicals and radiation
  • Metabolism pathways – phenylalanine + folic acid, vit C, copper and S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe)
Taurine
  • Sulfur containing – can be made from methionine or cysteine
  • Trauma treatment – regulates heartbeat, prevents brain cell overactivity
  • Free form – does not bond to form protein
  • Required for phase 2 detoxification and bile acid conjugation reactions
  • May act as anti-oxidant
  • May regulate calcium in heart (and regulate heart beat), platelets and nervous system of pre-born children               end product of sulfur metabolism in body

Best sources

  • Highest in animal products – cheese, wild game, pork, milk, yogurt, eggs, turkey, chicken
  • High in wheatgerm, oats, chocolate   not commonly found in plants

Adapted from:

Murray, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Healing Food. New York, N.Y.: Atria Books

Haas, E. (2006). Staying Healthy with Nutrition. Berkeley, CA: Celestial Healing Arts.

Bland, J., Costarella, L., Levin, B., Liska, D., Lukaczer, D., Schlitz, B., Schmidt, M., Lerman, R., Quinn, S., Jones, D. (2004). Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach, Second Edition. Gig Harbor, WA: The Institute for Functional Medicine.

essential amino acids

Arginine
  • Used for
    • Wound healing, detoxification reactions and immune function
    • Promoting hormone secretion (e.g. insulin, growth hormone)
    • Synthesizing creatine
  • Plays central role in formation of Nitric Oxide
  • Needed:
    • During periods of growth (eg pregancy, childhood and muscle building training) and stress
    • When protein intake in high (to break down nitrogen in amino acids)
  • Prevents hypoammonemia

Best sources – chocolate, peanuts, seeds, almonds, walnuts

Histidine
  • Used in blood cell production (ie hemoglobin) and to produce Histidine, hormone responsible for immune reaction resulting in swelling and allergic reactions
  • Needed:
    • During childhood and growth periods
    • For tissue formation and repair (eg injury)
IsoLeucine
  • Branch Chain Amino Acid (BCAA)
  • Promotes muscle recovery after exercise
  • Broken down to help regulate blood sugar
  • Stimulates protein synthesis and maintenance of muscle tissue
  • Oxidized in mitochondria for energy
  • Acts as precursors for ketone bodies and lipids in the liver
  • Supports energy related disorders, stress, muscle building
  • Reduces twitching and tremors

Best sources

  • high protein foods; red meat, dairy, fish
  • Nuts, seeds, grains, grain flour and their germs (eg wheat germ)

Function notes – in brain entry, BCAAs share transport mechanisms with tryptophan, phenylanine and tyrosine

Leucine
  • BCAA
  • Used to make sterols (e.g. cholesterol)
  • Stimulates protein synthesis and maintenance of muscle tissue (more than other BCAA)
  • Oxidized in mitochondria for energy
  • Acts as precursors for ketone bodies and lipids in the liver
  • Support energy related disorders, stress, muscle building; helps heal wounds of skin and bones

Best sources

  • High protein foods; red meat, poultry, fish, dairy
  • Oats, grains, grain flour and their germs

Function notes – in brain entry, BCAAs share transport mechanisms with tryptophan, phenylanine and tyrosine

Lysine Building muscle protein (especially useful for injury / operation recovery); concentrated in muscle tissue; production of anti-bodies, hormones and enzymes; calcium absorption from GI tract; help prevent osteoporosis; maintaining correct nitrogen balance; used for making protein Carnithine; promotes bone growth (especially in children); helps form collagen; deficiency may reduce growth, immunity, increase urinary calciumBest sources

  • Very high in fish, meats (turkey,chicken), dairy
  • Higher than other aminos in wheat germ, legumes and many fruit and vegetables
  • Not readily available in grain cereals of peanuts
  • Lysine sensitive to dry heat (such as popping, dry frying) but content of lysine enhanced by sprouting
Methionine
  • Methyl donor in methylation (with folic acid, B6, B12) as SAMe in methylation of DNA which controls DNA expression (useful in genetic disease states) and hormone production
  • Manufacture of body components, especially brain cells
  • Manufacture of sulfur containing cartilage compounds
  • Manufacture of Glutathione in liver detoxification
  • Sulfur containing
  • Intermediary in creation of phospholipids (used in each cell membrane), and other proteins: e.g. Taurine, Choline
  • Helps in treating depression, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, liver disorders, migraines

Best sources – meat, fish, eggs, dairy

Phenylanine Required for making tyrosine, precursor to neurotransmitters and catecholamines such as epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenalin), dopamine, tyrosineBest sources

  • High in many foods, especially meat, milk products
  • Lower levels in oats and wheat germ
Threonine
  • Supports liver function
  • Supports healthy immune system by promoting thymus response to illness
Tryptophan
  • Precursor to neurotransmitter serotonin (involved in muscle movement, alertness, mental activity, mood regulation) and melatonin (hormone for sleep regulation)
  • Regulates appetite
  • L-tryptophan and 5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan) useful in treating insomnia and depression

Best sources

  • Turkey, chicken, eggs, red meats, fish
  • Milk, cottage cheese, casein component of milk
  • Tofu, almonds, peanuts, dates, chocolate

Source and function notes

  • Requires Vitamins B6, C, Folic acid and Magnesium to metabolize tryptophan
  • Poor diet, lack of exercise, caffeine, alcohol, physical and emotional stress all effect serotonin and melatonin levels
  • Serotonin levels directly related to tryptophan intake and uptake
  • Tryptophan competes with other aminos for absorption especially tyrosine and phenylamine
  • Other aminos (especially BCAAs) get priority in entry to brain: they share the same carrier across Blood Brain Barrier
    • To promote tryptophan metabolism and entry to brain
      • Eat foods low in other aminos and tryptophan rich
      • Eat foods low in protein and rich in carbohydrate
Valine
  • BCAA
  • Fires up system
  • Works with IsoLeucine and Leucine to repair damage
  • Helps regulate blood sugar
  • Stimulates and regulates nervous system
  • Stimulates protein synthesis and maintenance of muscle tissue
  • Oxidized in mitochondria for energy
  • Acts as precursors for ketone bodies and lipids in the liver
  • Supports energy related disorders, stress, muscle building
  • Helps treat liver and gallbladder disease
  • Helps in treating addictions
  • Deficiency may affect myelin sheath of nerves

Best sources

  • High protein foods; red meat, dairy, fish nuts
  • Seeds, grains, grain flour and grain germ (eg wheat germ)

Function notes – in brain entry, BCAAs share transport mechanisms with tryptophan, phenylanine and tyrosine

Adapted from:

Murray, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Healing Food. New York, N.Y.: Atria Books

Haas, E. (2006). Staying Healthy with Nutrition. Berkeley, CA: Celestial Healing Arts.

Bland, J., Costarella, L., Levin, B., Liska, D., Lukaczer, D., Schlitz, B., Schmidt, M., Lerman, R., Quinn, S., Jones, D. (2004). Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach, Second Edition. Gig Harbor, WA: The Institute for Functional Medicine.

manganese

Functions
  • Anti-oxidant defense – co-factor in production of oxidative enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) which disarms free-radicals produced in cell mitochondria
  • SOD deficiency leads to strains, sprains and inflammation
  • Anti-inflammatory aid for people with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic inflammatory disorders
  • Enhances enzyme systems for blood sugar control, energy metabolism, thyroid hormone function, cholesterol synthesis, protein synthesis
  • Cerebral function – critical for glucose utilization within neuron, adenylate cyclase activity and neurotransmitter control
Source and function notes
  • High intake of iron, calcium or phosphorus create greater need for manganese, especially iron – if manganese intake high, iron intake will be lower
  • Not stored well in body and aluminium decreases tissue stores further
  • Activates enzymes for body to use Biotin, Vitamins B1, C and Choline
  • Activates glutamine synthetase (glutamine is small intestine fuel)
Vegetable sources spinach; turnip greens; rhubarb; beet greens; Brussel spouts; carrots; broccoli; cabbage; peas; beets; tomato
Fruit sources Raisins, Peach, Tangerine Apple, Orange, Pear, Cantaloupe melon, Apricot
Nut and seed sources Pecans, Brazil nuts, Almonds, Walnuts,  Peanuts, Coconut
Absorption factors Absorption inhibited by phytic acid and excess iron in diet – Manganese competes principally with Iron for absorption
Spice and herb sources Cloves, Ginger, Thyme, Bay Leaves
Deficiency factors
Toxicity and dangers  Links to epilepsy

Adapted from:

Murray, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Healing Food. New York, N.Y.: Atria Books

Bland, J., Costarella, L., Levin, B., Liska, D., Lukaczer, D., Schlitz, B., Schmidt, M., Lerman, R., Quinn, S., Jones, D. (2004). Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach, Second Edition. Gig Harbor, WA: The Institute for Functional Medicine.

cocoa

cacao

PRIMARY MICRO NUTRIENTS Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Zinc, Copper, Manganese, Selenium, Vitamins B2, B3
SECONDARY MICRO NUTRIENTS Vitamins B1, B5, Folate
NUTRITIONAL HIGHLIGHTS and NOTES
  • Exceptionally nutritious!
  • Cholesterol profile and uptake
    • Saturated vegetable fat does not increase cholesterol levels
    • Contains plant sterols sitosterol and stigmasterol that compete with cholesterol for absorption in GI tract helping to prevent cholesterol uptake
  • Neurotransmitter and mood modulation
    • Contains phenythlamine (released by neurons at moments of euphoria) and anandamine (released by brain to engender pleasant feelings, enhances relaxation and lessens anxiety, uses same receptors in brain that THC binds to)
    • Compounds in chocolate further inhibit natural breakdown of anandamine
FUNCTIONAL BENEFITS
  • Preventing cholesterol damage and artery lining health
  • Heart problems – flavonoids prevent blood platelets from aggregating to form blood clots
  • Amino acid Arginine
    • Helps regulate blood flow, inflammation, blood pressure
    • Arginine needed to produce Nitric Oxide which causes blood vessels to dilate
PHYTONUTRIENTS
  • High in Flavonoids and contains co-factors that enhance absorption of these flavonoids
  • Anti-oxidant activity of flavonoids, procyanidans, catechins (also found in tea), and phenols (also found in red wine)
PLANT FAMILY
DANGERS
  • Big industry – chemical use and slavery
  • Oxalates (Calcium binding and kidneys)
  • Quantity of sterols in cocoa butter is small
  • Contains Caffeine
RDA Cocoa, dry powder, unsweetened % RDA
Nutrient Unit per 100g
g 3700 3 0.1%
Energy kcal 2600 228 8.8%
Protein g 90 19.6 21.8%
Total lipid (fat) g 87 13.7 15.7%
Carbohydrate, by difference g 224 57.9 25.8%
Fiber, total dietary g 38 33.2 87.4%
Sugars, total g 1.75
Minerals
Calcium, Ca mg 1000 128 12.8%
Iron, Fe mg 8 13.86 173.3%
Magnesium, Mg mg 420 499 118.8%
Phosphorus, P mg 700 734 104.9%
Potassium, K mg 470 1524 324.3%
Sodium, Na mg 21
Zinc, Zn mg 11 6.81 61.9%
Copper, Cu mg 0.9 3.788 420.9%
Manganese, Mn mg 2.3 3.837 166.8%
Selenium, Se µg 55 14.3 26.0%
Vitamins
Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid mg 90 0 0.0%
Thiamin mg 1.2 0.078 6.5%
Riboflavin mg 1.3 0.241 18.5%
Niacin mg 16 2.185 13.7%
Pantothenic acid mg 5 0.254 5.1%
Vitamin B-6 mg 1.7 0.118 6.9%
Folate, total µg 400 32 8.0%
Choline, total mg 12
Betaine mg
Vitamin B-12 µg 2.4 0 0.0%
Vitamin A, IU IU 5000 0 0.0%
Vitamin E, total mg 15 0.0%
Vitamin D IU 600 0 0.0%
Vitamin K (phylloquinone) µg 120 2.5 2.1%
Lipids
Fatty acids, total saturated g 8.07
Fatty acids, total monounsaturated g 4.57
Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated g 0.44
Amino Acids
Tryptophan g 0.293
Threonine g 0.776
Isoleucine g 0.76
Leucine g 1.189
Lysine g 0.983
Methionine g 0.202
Cystine g 0.239
Phenylalanine g 0.941
Tyrosine g 0.735
Valine g 1.177
Arginine g 1.111
Histidine g 0.339
Alanine g 0.904
Aspartic acid g 1.953
Glutamic acid g 2.948
Glycine g 0.879
Proline g 0.838
Serine g 0.846
Hydroxyproline g
Other
Caffeine mg 230

RDA – Recommended Dietary Amount recommendations are based upon calculations for a 40 year old very active man that I have adapted from USDA’s Dietary Intake Guidelines. Using this link you can make your own calculations

Adapted from:

Murray, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Healing Food. New York, N.Y.: Atria Books

USDA food database: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/

Other information sources:

World’s Healthiest Foods – an excellent online food and nutrition encyclopedia

Self Nutrition Data: an online nutrient breakdown of foods

folate

Functions
  • Works with B6 and B12 in Methylation reactions
  • Brain and nerve function: works as partner with B12 in activities such as making neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine
  • Works with B12 in many processes, including synthesis of DNA and affects most the division of red blood cells, GI cells and genital cells as well as nervous development of fetus
  • Works with B12 and Betaine to reduce body concentrations of homocysteine (that lead to atherosclerosis, osteoporosis)
Sources notes
  • Best sources from yeast, wheat germ, whole beans, green leafy vegetables – name is derived from foliage
  • Folate is a naturally occurring nutrient
  • Folic acid is an oxidized synthetic form that is used in fortifying foods
Vegetable Sources Asparagus; Spinach; Kale; Beet and mustard greens; Broccoli; Brussel sprouts; cabbage
Fruit Sources dried figs; avocado
Nut and seed sources walnuts; peanuts; almonds
Absorption and function notes
  • Absorption inhibited by alcohol, prescription drugs impair metabolism
  • Extremely hear sensitive – destroyed by cooking
Deficiency factors
  • Brain and nerve function: impaired mental acuity / dementia, depression
  • Impaired nerve function leading to numbness, burning
  • Poor growth; diarrhea; anemia; gingivitis; birth defects
Toxicity
  • Destroyed by light and heat
  • High dose may be toxic, leading to insomnia, irritability and GI problems
  • High doses may also mask B12 deficiency
  • Folic acid (present in fortified foods) is associated with increased incidence of cancer

Adapted from:

Murray, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Healing Food. New York, N.Y.: Atria Books

Bland, J., Costarella, L., Levin, B., Liska, D., Lukaczer, D., Schlitz, B., Schmidt, M., Lerman, R., Quinn, S., Jones, D. (2004). Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach, Second Edition. Gig Harbor, WA: The Institute for Functional Medicine.

vitamin B1 – thiamine

Functions
  • Brain and nerve function:
    • Controls the use of glucose by neurons
    • Assists in making fatty acids needed to preserve integrity of nerve cell membranes
    • Works with vitamins B2 and B5 to make acetylcholine
  • Energy production and carbohydrate metabolism
  • Nerve cell function (as part of enzyme TPP)
Sources notes
  • Best sources yeast, wheat germ, seeds and nuts
  • Destroyed by excessive cooking
Vegetable Sources green peas; garlic; soybean sprouts; chilli; bell pepper
Fruit Sources
Nut and seed sources sunflower seeds; pine nuts; peanuts; brazil nuts; pecans; pistachio nuts; hazelnuts; cashews; macadamia nuts; walnuts; almonds; pumpkin seeds; sesame seed
Absorption and function notes
  • Absorption inhibited by baking soda, blueberries, beets, and brussel sprouts
  • Destroyed by alcohol, sulfites and anti-thiamine factor found in tea and uncooked freshwater shellfish and fish
Deficiency factors
  • Fatigue; depression; pins and needles / numbness; constipation
  • Severe deficiency – beriberi (mental confusion, muscle wasting, fluid retention, high blood pressure, difficulty walking, heart disturbances)
Toxicity None

Adapted from:

Murray, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Healing Food. New York, N.Y.: Atria Books

Bland, J., Costarella, L., Levin, B., Liska, D., Lukaczer, D., Schlitz, B., Schmidt, M., Lerman, R., Quinn, S., Jones, D. (2004). Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach, Second Edition. Gig Harbor, WA: The Institute for Functional Medicine.

vitamin C

Functions
  • Healthy immune system, lens of eye, adrenal glands, reproductive organs, connective body tissues (such as joints and gums)
  • Immune system:
    • Enhances white blood cell activity
    • Stimulates immune cells to fight infection
    • Assists in the production of immune-related chemicals
  • Antioxidant: protecting cells and constituents of blood from free-radical damage; restores and regenerates antioxidant potential of Vitamin E
  • Detoxification: helps the body to chelate heavy metals
  • Neurotransmitter and hormone synthesis (cofactor for hydroxylase enzymes):
    • Neurotransmitters: acetylcholine, norepinephrine and serotonin
    • Hormones: (cortisol, growth hormone-releasing factor, oxytocin and vasopressin
  • Collagen synthesis (cofactor for hydroxylase enzymes). Collagen is the structural protein found in skin, bones, tendons, cartilage, arteries, capillaries, hair, nails, teeth
  • Cardio protective: influences cholesterol excretion
Sources notes
  • Best sources raw vegetables and fruits
  • Destroyed by air, heat and water
  • Increases iron absorption
Vegetable Sources Red Chilli; Red Bell Pepper;  Kale; Parsley; Collard leaves; Turnip greens; green peppers; Broccoli; Brussel Sprouts; Mustard Greens; watercress; Cauliflower; red cabbage; Spinach; Cabbage
Fruit Sources acerola; guavas; strawberries; papayas; oranges; lemon, grapefruit; elderberries; mangoes; tangerines
Nut and seed sources
Absorption and function notes
  • Excessively excreted when body is under stress (both environmental and emotional stress)
  • Ascorbate form does not require digestion for absorption
Deficiency factors
  • Poor wound healing; bleeding gums; frequent colds or infections; lung-related problems (epithelial lining relies on vitamin C for protection)
  • Frank deficiency: scurvy – signs are spongy gums, purpura (small bruises).
Toxicity At high doses: diarrhea can result; can also increase levels of uric acid in the urine (concern about kidney stones)

Adapted from:

Murray, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Healing Food. New York, N.Y.: Atria Books

Bland, J., Costarella, L., Levin, B., Liska, D., Lukaczer, D., Schlitz, B., Schmidt, M., Lerman, R., Quinn, S., Jones, D. (2004). Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach, Second Edition. Gig Harbor, WA: The Institute for Functional Medicine.

vitamin B2 – riboflavin

Functions
  • Brain and nerve function: control use of glucose by neurons, assist in making fatty acids needed to preserve integrity of nerve cell membranes, works with B1 and B5 to make acetylcholine
  • Energy metabolism – needed to support thyroid, adrenals and for exercise
  • Liver enzyme (P450) support in xenobiotic metabolism
  • Lipid metabolism
  • Regenerates glutathione to provide anti-oxidant protection
Sources notes
  • Best sources yeast, wheat germ, organ meats, almonds, mushrooms
  • Destroyed by light
Vegetable Sources Mushrooms; hot peppers; collards; kale; parsley; broccoli; beet and mustard greens
Fruit Sources prunes
Nut and seed sources almonds; cashews; pine nuts; sunflower seeds
Absorption and function notes
  • Absorption inhibited by alcohol, antacids and psylium gum slow absorption
  • Bile acids enhance absorption
  • Bioavailability decresed by copper, zinc, caffeine, theophylline, B3, C tryptophan
Deficiency factors
  • Decreased energy especially in cells that replicate quickly (e.g. skin and mucus membranes) – cracking of lips and corners of mouth, inflamed tongue and other mucuous membrane disorders
  • Blurring and itching of eyes, lips, mouth and tongue
  • Visual disturbances (e.g. sensitivity to light, loss of acuity) and cataract formation
Toxicity

Adapted from:

Murray, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Healing Food. New York, N.Y.: Atria Books

Bland, J., Costarella, L., Levin, B., Liska, D., Lukaczer, D., Schlitz, B., Schmidt, M., Lerman, R., Quinn, S., Jones, D. (2004). Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach, Second Edition. Gig Harbor, WA: The Institute for Functional Medicine.

vitamin B6 – pyridoxine

Functions
  • Works with B12 and Folate in Methylation reactions
  • Brain and nerve function: transports amino acids into brain for use in making neurotransmitters; converts tryptophan to serotonin
  • Involved in:
    • Gluconeogenesis
    • Formation of body proteins and structural compounds: chemical transmitters in nervous system, red blood cells, prostaglandins
    • Maintaining hormonal balance and proper immune function
Sources notes Best sources yeast, wheat germ, sunflower seeds, whole-beans, banana, avocado
Vegetable Sources kale; spinach; turnip greens; peppers; potatoes
Fruit Sources banana; avocado; prunes; raisins
Nut and seed sources sunflower seeds; walnuts; hazelnuts
Absorption and function notes
  • Suspicions that food colorings, medications, and excessive protein and alcohol intake are antagonizing B6 use in body
  • Active form pyridoxal 5′ phosphate (PLP) made in liver from food: Zinc needed for this
  • Zinc, Vitamin B2 and Magnesium needed at target sites for function
  • Very heat stable
Deficiency factors
  • Brain and nerve function: deficiency causes abnormal brain wave patterns and decrease in nervous system activity and impaired nerve function
  • Depression; convulsions; glucose intolerance
Toxicity Can be toxic, leading to neuropathy, sensorial neuropathy and impaired detoxification reactions

Adapted from:

Murray, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Healing Food. New York, N.Y.: Atria Books

Bland, J., Costarella, L., Levin, B., Liska, D., Lukaczer, D., Schlitz, B., Schmidt, M., Lerman, R., Quinn, S., Jones, D. (2004). Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach, Second Edition. Gig Harbor, WA: The Institute for Functional Medicine.