weight loss study

Research proposal to formulate a dietary and exercise program to address Diabetes type 2 and Alzheimer’s in adults aged 30 to 45 working in high stress office jobs

by Hugo Allen-Stevens Continue reading “weight loss study”

ashwagandha

ashwagan

Part used Root
Use 1/2 tsp dried root in 8oz water decoct 10 mins and steep 1/2 hour; effects take a week of daily use to become effective
Benefits
  • Calming adaptogen
    • Rejuvenating, balancing, strengthening to nervous system, relieves fatigue, nervous exhaustion, and memory loss
    • Treats anxiety, fatigue, cloudy thinking, nervous exhaustion
  • Anti-Alzheimer’s – modifies way brain uses acetylcholine when brain oxygen is low – prevents canabilisation of brain cells which cause neurofibrillary tangles that lead to Alzeheimer’s
  • Treats cancer by suppressing tumors and preventing white blood cell depletion
  • Enhances endocrine function – regulates thyroid, testes and adrenal glands; treats hypothyroidism by stimulating thyroid
  • Treats hypo and hyper-immune function (eg auto-immune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis)
  • Mild aphrodisiac that reduces premature ejaculation and increases sexual stamina
  • Sports aide – gives instant charge of energy without stimulants
Dangers Nightshade family plant; avoid in cases of hyperthyroidism; avoid during pregnancy (can induce abortion)

Adapted from:

Winston, D. & Maimes, S. (2007). Adaptogens: Herbs for strength, stamina and stress releif. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press

Balch, P.A. (2002). Prescription for herbal healing. New York, NY: Avery books

Mulabagal, V., Subbaraju, G. V., Rao, C. V., Sivaramakrishna, C., DeWitt, D. L., Holmes, D., Sung, B., Aggarwal, B. B., Tsay, H.-S. and Nair, M. G. (2009), Withanolide sulfoxide from Aswagandha roots inhibits nuclear transcription factor-kappa-B, cyclooxygenase and tumor cell proliferation. Phytother. Res., 23: 987–992. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2736

Ichikawa, H., Takada, Y., Shishodia, S., Jayaprakasam, B., Nair, M.G., Aggarwal, B.B. (2006). Withanolides potentiate apoptosis, inhibit invasion, and abolish osteoclastogenesis through suppression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and NF-κB–regulated gene expression. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, 5 (6), pp. 1434 to 1445. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-06-0096

vitamin B3 – niacin

Functions
  • Brain and nerve function: vital for proper mental function
  • Energy production and fat, carbohydrate and cholesterol metabolism
  • Manufacture of body compounds such as sex and adrenal hormones
  • Treatment of schizophrenia
  • 2 forms:
    • As nicotinic acid form, lowers blood cholesterol
    • As niacinamide form, treating arthritis
Sources notes
  • Can be made in the body from conversion of tryptophan
  • Best sources yeast, wheat bran, meat and fish
Vegetable Sources peppers, red chilli
Fruit Sources
Nut and seed sources peanuts; sesame seeds; sunflower seeds; pine nuts
Absorption and function notes
Deficiency factors Pellagra (dermatitis, dementia and diarrhea)
Toxicity
  • As nicotinic acid form, can induce flushing of skin
  • In either form, high doses can result in liver disorders, peptic ulcers and glucose intolerance

Adapted from:

Murray, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Healing Food. New York, N.Y.: Atria Books

Bland, J., Costarella, L., Levin, B., Liska, D., Lukaczer, D., Schlitz, B., Schmidt, M., Lerman, R., Quinn, S., Jones, D. (2004). Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach, Second Edition. Gig Harbor, WA: The Institute for Functional Medicine.

vitamin B6 – pyridoxine

Functions
  • Works with B12 and Folate in Methylation reactions
  • Brain and nerve function: transports amino acids into brain for use in making neurotransmitters; converts tryptophan to serotonin
  • Involved in:
    • Gluconeogenesis
    • Formation of body proteins and structural compounds: chemical transmitters in nervous system, red blood cells, prostaglandins
    • Maintaining hormonal balance and proper immune function
Sources notes Best sources yeast, wheat germ, sunflower seeds, whole-beans, banana, avocado
Vegetable Sources kale; spinach; turnip greens; peppers; potatoes
Fruit Sources banana; avocado; prunes; raisins
Nut and seed sources sunflower seeds; walnuts; hazelnuts
Absorption and function notes
  • Suspicions that food colorings, medications, and excessive protein and alcohol intake are antagonizing B6 use in body
  • Active form pyridoxal 5′ phosphate (PLP) made in liver from food: Zinc needed for this
  • Zinc, Vitamin B2 and Magnesium needed at target sites for function
  • Very heat stable
Deficiency factors
  • Brain and nerve function: deficiency causes abnormal brain wave patterns and decrease in nervous system activity and impaired nerve function
  • Depression; convulsions; glucose intolerance
Toxicity Can be toxic, leading to neuropathy, sensorial neuropathy and impaired detoxification reactions

Adapted from:

Murray, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Healing Food. New York, N.Y.: Atria Books

Bland, J., Costarella, L., Levin, B., Liska, D., Lukaczer, D., Schlitz, B., Schmidt, M., Lerman, R., Quinn, S., Jones, D. (2004). Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach, Second Edition. Gig Harbor, WA: The Institute for Functional Medicine.

dopamine

dopa2

Functions
  • Affects Limbic system: reward, pleasure, motivation
  • Protects against autoimmunity: works with immune system and thyroid in particular
  • Affects Thyroid and regulates heart rate and blood pressure
  • Affects adrenal function, kidneys and T-cells
  • Affects Brain Power, Motor co-ordination, Cognition and learning
  • Dopamine dampens glutamate activity leading to enhanced memory and learning
Food habits and Weight Management
  • Controls metabolism – when metabolism is low, fat burning is low and fat accumulation is increased; low metabolism also leads to unconscious attempts to increase energy via use of stimulants and high energy yielding foods
  • Controls motivation via limbic reward – low dopamine leads to loss of emotional or physical satiation and continued uncontrolled eating and food cravings in search of dopamine reward
  • Low dopamine leads to not feeling happy and not recognizing fullness / satiation with food; small snacks or meals not being sufficient and feelings of hunger after a meal
Hormonal interactions
  • Interacts with Growth Hormone, Testosterone, Cortisol and DHEA and Dopamine is involved in TSH release
  • Dopamine receptor sensitivity determined by Thyroid hormones which also determine dopamine levels (low TSH, T4, T3 leads to low dopamine)
  • Progesterone receptors modulated by Dopamine
Deficiencies
  • Loss of power and symmetry impacts energy and drive, causing weight gain, fatigue and diminished libido
  • Depression and lack of motivation
  • Inability to experience pleasure, social anxiety and low sexual desire
  • Learning disorders, ADD, Addictions
  • Parkinson’s
Excess
  • Psychosis and schizophrenia
  • Mania, hypersocial and increased libido
Symptoms of deficiency
  • Feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness
  • Inability to handle stress, anger and aggression whilst under stress, easy loss of temper
  • Inability to finish tasks, disorganized and late for appointments
  • Lack of focus, easily distracted
  • Desire to isolate socially and lack of concern for family and friends
  • Need to consume caffeine to be alert
  • Low libido
Causes of deficiency
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Low stomach acid: leading to low methyl donors
  • Antacids (inhibit stomach HCL) , Oral contraceptives, Hormone Relacement Therapy
  • H. Pylori
  • Low protein in diet
Food modulators
  • Protein rich meals: Game meat, Beef, Pork, Turkey; Fish; Eggs, Cheese
  • Oats, Chocolate
Herb and supplement modulators
  • Mucuna pruriens (from a bean), Blueberry extract
  • Phenylethyamine (PEA), DL-Phenylanine, L-tyrosine
  • Vit B6, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Alpha Lipoic Acid

Adapted from:

Braverman, E. (2009). Younger (Thinner) You Diet. New York, N.Y.:Rodale.

Kharrazian, D. (2013). Why Isn’t My Brain Working? Carlsbad, C.A.: Elephant Press

serotonin

sero

Functions
  • Brain Synchrony: Mood and anger regulation
  • Temperature regulation: affects Thyroid and metabolism
  • Sleep regulation: converted to melatonin
  • Appetite: carbohydrate stimulates production, present in Gastro Intestinal (GI) tract and affects GI motility
  • Pain modulation
  • Vasoconstriction
Food habits and Weight Management
  • Controls rhythm and tiredness – via conversion to melatonin and leads to proper rest and recuperation
  • Controls hunger – low serotonin leads to increased Ghrelin which controls feelings of hunger
  • Low serotonin leads to carbohydrate and salty foods cravings
Hormonal interactions
  • Interacts with Progesterone, Growth Hormone, Pregnenolone, Leptin, Aldosterone
  • Serotonin controls T3 production and TSH release
  • Thyroid hormones determine serotonin levels (low TSH, T4 or T3 leads to low serotonin)
  • Serotonin primes estrogen receptors
Deficiencies
  • Loss of coordinated development affects mind-body connection, causing headaches, backaches, insomnia and depression
  • Anger and aggression
  • Depression and guilt, OCD, Bipolar, Anxiety
  • Migraines, food issues and IBS
  • Tinnitus, Fibromyalgia
  • Intense religious experiences
Excess
  • Self-esteem: shyness, inferiority complex, nervousness, vulnerable to criticism and fear of being disliked, fear of social contact
  • Excess may be caused by estrogen dominance
Symptoms of deficiency
  • Loss of pleasure in hobbies, interests and favorite activities and loss of enjoyment of life, friendships and relationships
  • Overwhelm and feelings of too many ideas to manage
  • Inner rage, inner paranoia, depression
  • Unable to fall into deep sleep (due to melatonin deficiency); SAD
Causes of deficiency
  • Inflammation and chronic health issues
  • Gluten sensitivity affects serotonin receptors
  • Insulin surges
  • Low nutrients: B6, Zinc, Magnesium, B12
  • Low protein and sources of tryptophan in diet
  • Excess caffeine and stress
Food modulators
  • Carbohydrate rich meals
  • Shrimp, Halibut, Salmon
  • Chicken, Turkey, Beef, Liver
  • Mushrooms, Pumpkin seeds, Soy and Tofu
Herb and supplement modulators 5HTP, St John’s, Wort, SAMe, Inositol

Adapted from:

Braverman, E. (2009). Younger (Thinner) You Diet. New York, N.Y.:Rodale.

Kharrazian, D. (2013). Why Isn’t My Brain Working? Carlsbad, C.A.: Elephant Press

acetylcholine

acetylcholine

Functions
  • Brain Speed: Cognition, Learning, Writing
  • Controls brain speed; Memory and Hippocampus function; Creativity; Writing
  • Promotes epinephrine and norepinephrine release
  • Activates muscles / used in muscular contraction
Food habits and Weight Management
  • Controls memory and attention – low acetylcholine leads to confusion, poor food choices and eating fatty foods
  • Controls lubrication and insulation – for nerve tissue, muscles, bones, brain and internal systems such as nervous system
  • Low acetylcholine associated with eating disorders, craving for fatty foods, dietary intake of fast food and alcohol
Hormonal interactions
  • Growth Hormone, Vasopressin, DHEA, Calcitonin, Parathyroid, Erthropeitin, estrogen
  • Thyroid hormones modulate acetylcholine activity and cognitive function
  • Cognitive function affected by testosterone (low testosterone leading to low cognitive function)
Deficiencies
  • Loss of speed impacts information processing and recall, causing memory and concentration lapses
  • Impaired creativity, judgment, comprehension; Calculation difficulties; Sluggish thinking
  • Myasthenia Gravis (Auto Immune attack of Acetylcholine receptors)
  • Alzheimer’s and Dementia – Acetylcholine depletion causes hippocampal and cerebellum degeneration
Symptoms of deficiency
  • Memory problems – loss of visual or verbal memory, forgetfulness, facial and object recognition difficulties
  • Diminished comprehension and calculating abilities
  • Loss of mental speed and responsiveness
  • Altered sense of awareness of self
  • Low mucous activity – dry eyes and skin
Food modulators
  • Fat and fatty foods
  • Soy Choline and lecithin
  • Egg yolks, Cream, Milk, Cheese
  • Pork, Beef, Liver
  • Nuts
Herb and supplement modulators
  • Chinese herbs – Galantamine (Caucasian Snowdrop) and L-Huperzine (Club Moss: successfully used to treat dementia)
  • Alpha GPC; Acetyl L-Carnitine
  • Circulation promoters – Gingko Biloba, Gotu Kola, Bakopa; Vit B5 and B3

Adapted from:

Braverman, E. (2009). Younger (Thinner) You Diet. New York, N.Y.:Rodale.

Kharrazian, D. (2013). Why Isn’t My Brain Working? Carlsbad, C.A.: Elephant Press

gaba

gaba 2

Functions
  • Brain Rhythm: Chief inhibitory neurotransmitter
  • Promotes relaxation: anti-anxiety, anti-convulsive
Food habits and Weight Management
  • Controls inhibition and balances other excitory hormones and neurotransmitters
  • Controls ability to handle stress and impulses– low GABA leads to nervous tension and instinctive search for comfort and solace in food choices to resolve anxiety and poor impulse and portion control leading to overeating
  • Low GABA leads to eating quickly, eating second helpings, food sampling, eating desserts, overeating
Hormonal interactions
  • Deficiency causes anxiety which accelerates obesity and leads to all hormonal pauses
  • Progesterone primes GABA receptors
  • Thyroid hormones affect enzyme activity responsible for GABA synthesis, release, reuptake, receptor expression and function, and degradation
Deficiencies
  • Loss of rhythm impacts calmness and stability, causing anxiety, hypertension GERD and seizures
  • Anxiety, Insomnia, Depression, Racing mind, Fear and worry
  • Diminished learning and memory due to increased glutamate activity
Excess Lethargy, feeling sedated
Symptoms of deficiency
  • Disorganized attention, restless mind, worry, guilt about decisions
  • Inner tension and excitability
  • Inexplicable dread, anxiety, overwhelm
  • Poor impulse control, temper tantrums; knot in stomach
Causes of deficiency
  • Inability to convert glutamate to GABA
  • Chronic stress and excess adrenalin
  • Hypoglycemia and insulin resistance
  • Anemia, Hypothyroid and gluten sensitivity
Food modulators
  • Nuts – Peanuts, Walnuts, Hazelnuts, Almonds
  • Grains – Oats, Barley, Wheat, Rice
  • Legumes – Beans
  • Cheese; Halibut; Spinach; Liver
Herb and supplement modulators
  • Lithium Orotate; L-Theanine
  • Taurine (increases GABA receptivity and helps repair heart
  • Glycine (which also helps liver detoxification)
  • Calmative herbs – Passion Flower; Valerian root; Chamomile; Hops; Kava kava

Adapted from:

Braverman, E. (2009). Younger (Thinner) You Diet. New York, N.Y.:Rodale.

Kharrazian, D. (2013). Why Isn’t My Brain Working? Carlsbad, C.A.: Elephant Press